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Ved Vatika

Ved Vatika

Vedas are the oldest religious script in the Sanskrit language. The Veda is part of the Hindu religion. The Veda is said to be written in 2 millennium BC while the accurate time is unconfirmed. The contribution of Veda comes from the families of ten Rishis and the curation of their lineage. This also includes rituals and customs done by the given lineages. Veda has praised many gods like Agni (Fire), Surya(Sun), Ushas(Dawn), Rudra(Storms), Indra(Rains), and many more.

There are four types of Vedas:

  1. Rigveda
  2. Yajurdeva
  3. Samaveda
  4. Arthaveda

1. Rigveda: Rigveda is the amalgamation of four major components. This includes the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aryankas, and the Upanishads. The Samhitas are the dedicated hymns of different gods and goddesses in the Hindu Religion. The Brahmanas are the commentaries of the hymns. The Aryanakas are well known as forest books. The Upanishad contains other religious texts.

Rigveda has stories of the mythology of many gods and goddesses like Surya, Indra, Rudra, Vayu, Agni, Vishnu, and many others. The stories in Rigveda called Sukta were the reflection of Hindu philosophies and belief systems. They include rituals and customs like marriage, rituals to drive away negativity and illness, etc. Rigveda also speaks about good governance and morality. It also contained hymns of many rivers and the cure of many diseases.

2. Yajurdeva: Yajurdeva is the guide to all Brahmans who had to practice all ritualistic works in sacrifice. Yajurdeva includes many rituals like the sacred fire, puja and ceremonies, dan, and many more. There are two divisions of Yajurdeva. The Krishna (Pure) Yajurdeva or Shukla (Dark) Yajurdeva. The Yajurdeva was divided by the conflict of Rishi Vaishampayana and his student Yajyavalkya.

Sukla Yajurveda has two Samhita available today:

  • Madhyandina Samhita
  • Kanva Samhita

Krishna Yajurveda has four Sanhitas available today:

  • Taittiriya Samhita
  • Kathaka Samhita
  • Kapishthala Samhita
  • Maitrayani Samhita

Yajurdeva has many rituals like Darsha-Purnamasa, Agnihotra, Somayaga, Chaturmasya, Agnihotra, Vajapeya, Ashvamedha, Sarva-Medha, Brahma-Yajya, Pitrimedha, Sautramani, and so on.

3. Samaveda: Samaveda is the shortest Veda which is more connected to Rigveda. Samaveda includes verses that are all meant to be chanted at the ceremonies of the Soma-sacrifice and procedures derived from it. The Samaveda is compiled exclusively for ritual application, made for the use of the Udagatr priest.

The Samaveda had 1000 recensions (Shakhas) in which the most well known are:

  • Kauthama
  • Jaminiya
  • Ranayaniya

4. Arthaveda: Arthaveda is the newer entry in the Veda. In ancient Hindu culture, only 3 Veda were recognized. Arthaveda includes beliefs and rituals used in the daily life of Hindu society. They mostly focus on the wardship of evil and hardships. Arthaveda is well known for its ritualistic process for learning, marriage, and funerals. They also include many rituals used in courts and the Royal Families.

Arthaveda includes early health care, charms, medical herbs, prayers to gain a life partner, and the speculation of man, life, good and evil.